Additionally, estimates of virus prevalence need to be interpreted carefully until studies directly comparing pregnant women and the general population are completed. The research team measured levels of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies to estimate rates of exposure to the novel coronavirus in pregnant women cared for at two Philadelphia hospitals. They found that, overall, 6.2 percent of these women possessed antibodies to the virus, but with significant variation across racial and ethnic groups — 9.7 percent in Black women, 10.4 percent in Hispanic/Latina women, 2.0 percent in White/Non-Hispanic women, and 0.9 percent in Asian women.
This is a membership-based organization that offers a comprehensive business directory of members from a diverse business population including financial, manufacturing, professional and technical industries. Lahle Wolfe wrote about women in business for The Balance Small Business. She has more than 25 years of experience in small business development and ran her own digital marketing firm. The professional and educational growth opportunities for Latinas in this country are numerous.
A 2005studylooking at almost 2,000 Latinas ranging in age from 11 to 20 years old concluded that eating disorders are prevalent in all subgroups, illustrating that these illnesses cut across race, ethnicity, class and age. While Latinas have predominantly been excluded from research on body image and eating disorders, they are not immune from developing disordered eating habits and mental illnesses like anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. On the contrary, despite rarely being reported or diagnosed,recent studiesshow that Latinas have eating disorders and body image issues at rates comparable to or greater than non-Latina whites.
It actually becomes common practice for Latina women to come together seeking group love and support. It’s also a tendency not to tell the older women in the family a problem to avoid scaring them into bad health. This means that when people look at your sexy Latin lover and think she’s only good for “that,” it isn’t just because ofModern Family and Desperate Housewives. There are real-life obstacles for Latina women to develop their careers and ambitions. Patterns of female family structure are found to be similar in Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic, and tend to be more matrifocal.
In 2011, the American Civil Liberties Unionmaintainedthat mass incarceration has an exceptional effect on Latinas and black women, who are typically the primary caregivers for their children and are also disproportionately victimized. Driven largely by the War on Drugs, women of color, particularly black and Latina women, comprise the fastest-growing sector of the prison population.
The results of our second robustness check, in which we used the methods of Chang et al33 to detect level shifts, slope changes, and spike-and-decay sequences in the data, also converged with our primary tests. We found level shifts but no slope changes starting in August 2016 for male and October 2016 for female preterm births to Latina women. The exposure coefficient for female births was 110.6 (95% CI, 61.6-159.6), implying 995 more preterm births (95% CI, ) than the that would have been expected based on preelection data. Together, we observed approximately 3.2% to 3.6% more preterm births to Latina women above expected levels of preterm births had the election not occurred.
For instance, women who use high-dose estrogen oral contraceptives for family planning may have an increase in their risk of breast cancer. Studies suggest that women living in Latin America may not have the same exposure to oral birth control as women of Hispanic/Latina background in the United States. A 2018 study identified breast cancer genes that are more common among women of Hispanic/Latino descent.
Disaggregating the white male premium and the Hispanic woman penalty for various subgroups of Hispanic women can help paint a fuller picture of wage gaps for Hispanic workers based on country of origin, immigration history, and education. This methodological approach demonstrates how white men and Hispanic women of different countries of origin are respectively advantaged and disadvantaged compared to other workers in the economy, while also facilitating a direct wage comparison between the two groups. The late date for Latina Equal Pay Day demonstrates the differential economic well-being faced by Latinas compared to white men in terms of earnings. In addition to finding that unexplained wage gap for Hispanic women is greater than the aggregation of the absolute ethnic and gender effects, we also identify particular groups of Hispanic women at an even greater disadvantage.
Protesters Gather In La Mesa To Demand Justice For Women Of Color
- The disaggregation of the white male premium and Hispanic woman penalty detailed in Figure 7 sheds light on the mechanism through which the wage gap changes with rising education.
- Latina women earn 46% less than white men and 31% less than white women, the worst gender wage gap for any group of minority women, according to 2019 data.
- Wage gaps also harm the individuality of working Latinas and limit their social and economic mobility.
- Alternatively, Hispanic women who receive a high school diploma experience a wage gap that is about 10 log points lower than Hispanic women who dropped out before graduating high school.
No matter how you slice the data, it is clear that there is a lot of work to be done to improve the standard of living for Latinas and their families. More educational attainment and access to better quality education would certainly help to improve the Latinas’ chances to move up the job ladder and get better paid jobs. However, this is not the whole story, since even after controlling for education, the wage gap remains very large.
Many Hispanic women are similarly trapped in difficult situations that force them to choose between complying with cultural norms and prioritizing their own physical health. And for many of these women, putting their health first is out of the question. Massara summarizes this sentiment when she says that for Latinas, “concerns about weight for its effect on appearance are incompatible https://www.historiskefestivaler.no/2020/04/08/rumored-buzz-on-cuban-girl-exposed/ with the important self-concept of the ‘good wife’ and mother whose primary concern is the nurturance and care of her family” . The efforts of Hispanic women to maintain a healthy weight are thwarted by cultural expectations that require them to comply with this family-first attitude, and also as a result of their desire to simultaneously be both good mothers and loving wives.
Caution should be used in generalizing the findings because of the small number of Latina women, the inability to assess subgroups and acculturation status of Latinas, the insured nature of the sample, and the data collection method. Collective bargaining agreements also mimic pay transparency by clearly defining pay scales for different positions.26 As such, pay gaps are lower for union workers. Similarly, banning salary history helps eliminate outright wage discrimination by preventing workers from carrying around lower wages as they change jobs.
Offering and facilitating access to occupations that are higher paid will also move Latinas up the occupational ladder. Here too, however, we find that even within the same occupations, Latinas fare worse. Lastly, it is important to strengthen workplace protections, like equal pay for equal work provisions, so that those women who do have the same education, the same occupation and are equally qualified in the workplace are not paid less or driven away from moving up to these higher paid positions.
Ensuring this population has access to good jobs and the social safety net is critical to addressing economic inequality. Today is Latina Equal Pay Day, the day in 2018 when Hispanic women in the United States have to work to earn as much as white men in the United States earned in 2017 alone. Doing back-breaking work under the unforgiving sun, sleeping in rough shacks with dozens of men to a room, all for below-poverty-level wages; farm workers in the early Twentieth Century, most of whom were immigrants from Central America, had a hard, painful, unjust life. In 1965, Huerta created the United Farm Workers, an organization that worked tirelessly to improve the working conditions for farm workers. By leading boycotts, picketing, protesting and lobbying, Huerta was instrumental in bringing about legislation that protects some of the most vulnerable people in our society.
While many Latina women work outside the home in their countries of origin, their efforts in the U.S. often yield more economic benefits.
The Gap Hurts Women And Families
A successful published poet in her native Puerto Rico, de Burgos struggled to get the recognition she deserved after moving to the U.S. in the 1930s. Her poems spoke of the beauty of her native country, and celebrated her identity as an immigrant black Latina — all things that were outside of the mainstream in early 20th-century poetry circles. Way ahead of their time, de Burgos’ scintillating poems center on themes of feminism and social justice, setting the stage for many Latino writers to come.